(12) In certain NENA languages new preterite away from Category II verbs enjoys a good vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- with no predecessor in the earlier languages. Noldeke (1868, 213) recommended the progressive form is related to the fresh new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he grabbed it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Variations that have o or u was missing additional NENA while having a number of of NENA dialects: Hertevin, Sanandaj Religious, and you may Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) All round establish are marked because of the a good prefix in most NENA but Hertevin plus Mandaic plus Turoyo. Brand new prefix requires certainly one of three forms: (a) k- towards all the verbs (state-of-the-art in order to c- inside Urmi, prolonged so you can ko- prior to consonants inside the Turoyo, plus in Zakho getting grams- prior to a voiced phoneme); (b) k- but merely with the a limited group of verbs (with many voicing intake and regularly almost every other transform also); or (c) i- toward every verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, individual telecommunications); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we create say’, however, doqIx-wa-le ‘we do observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he consumes, often eat’, but sate ‘he beverages, commonly, could possibly get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu we-napli baro ‘they chase her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
The newest k- prefix is apparently a success of your prefix qa- away from BT, as with the new ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. e ‘stands’. In certain east dialects the fresh shipments of k- has become restricted to a small family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it offers disappeared and been changed because of the a unique prefix we-, hence probably began because a lowered brand of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes to the newest synagogue’ , Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla weil kIcca ‘I went to offer currency so you’re able to a good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The latest verb ‘give’ are yehav from inside the BT, and yav for the Syriac. It’s been remade in most NENA languages from incorporation of the adopting the l- ‘to’. The imperative, which had been hav during the Syriac and you will BT, was hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) throughout NENA by which I’ve pointers, but not into the Turoyo or Mandaic.
(15) In most NENA, brand new just one imperative away from qyama ‘get up’ has shed the latest m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Religious qu (Panoussi, 110). Brand new plural, although not, retains brand new m.
(16) In all NENA, new essential out-of (i)zala ‘go’ are unusual: Aradhin si (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani lorsque (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) All over NENA, many different words are used as the base for reflexive pronouns like ‘myself’. They are: ruh- from inside the Hertevin plus Turoyo, nos- on three easternmost Jewish languages, and gyan- in the remaining languages: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
It qa- are itself an excellent contraction of qa?
(18) An alternate preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which will take the shape ta, tla, otherwise tla is actually widespread, even if not universal, from inside the NENA, although not used in Mandaic otherwise Turoyo. ) came to cook’ (Rubba, private correspondence), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga story ‘no you to unsealed the door to him’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182).